May 6, 2008

The Mercy of Penal Substitution: Recovering a Trinitarian Model of Atonement

The doctrine of Atonement has been a hot topic in recent years and a particular model of the atonement, Penal Substitution, has come under direct fire even to the point of being called unbiblical (J. Green and M. Baker, Recovering the Scandal of the Cross, IVP, 2000, p. 148). The doctrine that says the Father allowed his wrath to fall upon the Son has sometimes even been construed as divine child abuse. This claim demonstrates a profound misunderstanding of the Trinitarian shape of the Penal Substitution model. If we are to be Trinitarian, then we must affirm that the Father and the Son, while being distinct persons, share the same divine essence. We must be careful to hold the oneness of God and the threeness of God in balance. The divine child abuse argument emphasizes the distinction among the persons of the Trinity to the neglect of their oneness. It is venturing into a practical tritheism where the Father pours his wrath on his son in a detached way. A faithfully Trinitarian understanding Penal Substitution would point out that, inasmuch as Jesus is the second person of the Trinity and shares the divine essence with the Father and the Spirit, in Christ God takes his just wrath upon himself. Now at this point, we must be careful not to slide into modalism and emphasize the unity of the Godhead to the neglect of the threeness. The Father did not die on the cross. However, one person of the Godhead manifested his character of self giving love to take God's wrath upon himself. In a sense, God felt the pain of his own wrath against us. This is a deeply merciful model and it is only available in a deeply Trinitarian framework. If we can hold the fine balance of Trinitarian theology, then we will see that the doctrine of Penal Substitution is hardly abusive; it is deeply merciful.


MP said...

What mercy! What grace! Hallelujah, what a Savior! It is the cross of Christ and the wonder of Jesus the God-man taking God's wrath in our place that has captivated me these past few weeks. May it captivate us forever!

As a side note, I always appreciate your stress of the Trinity. In my opinion, it is THE most important "doctrine" in Christianity. Grace to you!

Matt O'Reilly said...

Thanks. I agree that the doctrine of the Trinity may be the most important Christian doctrine. I took a class last fall called "Triune Theism" that was really helpful. I highly recommend the professor's book, "The God Who Is Triune" by Allan Coppedge. All to often Christian theologians emphasize either the unity or distinction of God to the neglect of the other. Coppedge does a good job of holding the two together.