December 2, 2014

3 Reasons for Reading Backwards with Richard Hays (@Baylor_Press)

After attending part of the review panel for Richard Hays' new short book, Reading Backwards: Figural Christology and the Fourfold Gospel Witness (Baylor, 2014), I knew I had to get a copy and read it. So I did, and took the long plane ride from California as an opportunity to dig in to this treasure trove of accessible and robust biblical scholarship on the Gospels. Hays is currently the Dean of Duke Divinity School and is well known for his work on the interplay between Old and New Testaments. This book is the published version of Hays' Hulsean Lectures at Cambridge in the fall of 2013 and spring of 2014, and it takes up that interplay as it relates to the canonical Gospels.

The central thesis of the book is that the Gospels teach us to read the Old Testament, and the Old Testament teaches us to read the Gospels. In particular, the Gospels are to be read figurally, that is with a view to the many ways Old Testament texts may signify or pre-figure the Gospel narratives about Jesus. Hays puts it this way: "we learn to read the OT by reading backwards from the Gospels, and - at the same time - we learn how to read the Gospels by reading forwards from the OT" (4, italics original). This is not simply to say we note the citation when a Gospel passage quotes or evokes an Old Testament passage. It means that the Gospel writers intend their readers to soak into the original context of Old Testament passage and to interpret what they say about Jesus in light of that context. So, when Jesus says things like, "I am with you," or, "My words will not pass away," he should be read with a view to the rich texture that those words have in the OT when they are predicated of God. Or when Jesus walks on water, it's not just a neat miracle to illustrate his power over nature. It should be read with the understanding that in the Old Testament only the God of Israel "treads on the waves of the sea" (Job 9:8). And the narrative implication is that Jesus embodies the presence of that very God. These examples don't begin to capture the many and varied ways the Gospel writers see the Old Testament pre-figuring Jesus. You'll have to read the book. In the mean time, here are three reasons to do just that. 

1. Refreshingly Orthodox

A significant number of New Testament scholars insist that stories about Jesus' divinity were invented by the later Church and read back onto the life of Jesus. Hays cites one of the more popularly known proponents of that view, Bart Ehrman, who says, "The idea that Jesus was divine was a later Christian invention, one found, among our gospels, only in John" (Jesus Interrupted, 249). In contrast, Hays shows that each of the Gospels were written to narrate how Jesus of Nazareth embodies the God of Israel. To be sure, the different gospels tell the story to emphasize different aspects of what that embodiment looks like, and the diversity of their portrayals should not be minimized. Nevertheless, when the Gospels are read figurally in light of the Old Testament, they unanimously insist that Jesus bears in his body the unique presence of the creator God. Hays makes his case with elegance and beauty, which is the main reason it is so robust and persuasive. When you come to the creeds after you read this book, their words will carry far richer meaning than you ever might have imagined.

2. Great resource for preaching

This reason for reading is directed more toward the preachers out there. Use this book as a resource for preaching the Gospels. If you are working with a passage in the Gospels, look it up in the index to see what Hays says about it. It will add a multiple layers of depth to your comprehension and preaching of the text. It will point you to features of the text that you had not previously observed. And it will equip you to lead your congregation into a deeper understanding of the connection between the Old Testament and the Gospels. It will make you a better preacher. 

3. Perfect for Advent

I'll finish by saying that this book is an excellent read for the season of Advent, which has just begun. As we draw near to Christmas and our celebration of the Incarnation of God in Christ, what better book to read than one focused on deep clarity with regard to the way the Gospel writers portray the Incarnation? I was very glad to read this book when I did since I was reflecting on scripture and sermons for the season. It has impacted my experience of Advent both in terms of formation and as a resource for preaching. For this I am grateful.

Seldom do I say that I cannot recommend a book highly enough, but that is exactly what I will say about Reading Backwards. 

3 comments:

apilgriminnarnia.com said...

Matt, I am reading Hays now, but using his method in another context (reading the Inklings hermeneutically).
When you say (he says) "figurally," is that meant to be a word that slices between the false "Literal"-"Metaphorical" dichotomy? (or put something else for Metaphorical, like symbolical)
For example, we see how Jesus baptism echoes the exodus, bringing symbols (dove, voice, water dividing, desert) into a rich new Christ-reading. Some would say that because it is symbolical or intertextual, it isn't historical (or we are not meant to read it historically). But does that "figural" word give space to see the rich, evocative storytelling in league with history telling?
Sorry, bulky question.

Matt O'Reilly said...

Good question. Hays follows Erich Auerbach's "classical definition" of figural interpretation, which is this:

"Figural interpretation establishes a connection between two events or persons in such a way that the first signifies not only itself but also the second, while the second involves or fulfills the first. The two poles of a figure are separated in time, but both, being real events or persons, are within temporality. They are both contained in the flowing stream which is historical life, and the only comprehension, the intellectus spiritualis, of their interdependence is a spiritual act" (2).

Hays points out elsewhere that the figural sense of a text does not deny the literal sense of the text. So it seems to carve an alternative route apart from simple symbolism or wooden literalism.

He also acknowledges that historical critical questions are different that narrative interpretation questions. Nevertheless, he also says things like this:

"There is only one reason why christological interpretation of the OT is not a matter of stealing or twisting Israel's sacred texts: the God to whom the Gospels bear witness, the God incarnate in Jesus, is the same as the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. Either that is true, or it is not. If it is not, the Gospels are a delusional and pernicious distortion of Israel's story. If it is true, then the figural literary unity of Scripture, OT and NT together, is nothing other than the climactic fruition of that one God's self-revelation. As readers, we are forced to choose which of these hermeneutical forks in the road we will take" (109).

That would seem to suggest that while Hays distinguishes between historical criticism and narrative (and figural) criticism, he still insists that the figural claims are nonetheless truth claims. Either Jesus is the embodiment of Israel's God, or the Gospels are delusional and pernicious. Seems quite straight forward to me.

Thanks for your question. Very helpful.

apilgriminnarnia.com said...

Is it just me, or is this a pretty "historical" view from UNC Chapel Hill? It's pretty orthodox, or at least gives impetus to orthodox readers.
Besides the limits of orthodoxy, it seems to capture what I've been trying to intimate without finding full language for. It wouldn't be the first time that Hays scooped me!